Galicia [Austrian territory]

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Halicz, Galic, Halytsa, Ruthenian

Ukraine is first mentioned in the Tale of Igor's Campaign against Plovtsy in 1185. Nobody heard about Moscow and Russia at that time. Kyiv was founded in 482, while Moscow was founded in 1147.

Kyivan Rus was identified with Ukraine. 1189-1213, Ukraine was called Krajina [our country] in Kyiv chronicles - Galich Ukraina.

Although Ruthenians drove out the Hungarians from Halych-Volhynia by 1221, Hungarian kings continued to add Galicia et Lodomeria to their official titles.

Galician-Volynian Rus from: The Ukrainians in America by Myron B Kuropas
Following the fall of Kiev, the center of Ukrainian national life shifted to the southwest section of the former Kievan Rus state, to the provinces of Galica and Volynia. By the end of the 12th century, Galicia and Volynia had united to form a separate principality that retained the name Rus. Exposed more and more to the cultural influences of western Europe, this state grew and prospered. Under a series of capable rulers, such as King Daniel (Danylo)*, who founded the city of Lviv**, the political stability of this second Ukrainian state was maintained for over 100 years.

In time, however, Galicain-Volynian Rus suffered the same fate as Kievan Rus. Disagreement along royal heirs, combined with the rising power of neighboring states, eventually led to the fall of second Ukrainian state. In the 14 the century, Galicia was conquered by Poland, while Lithuania annexed Volynia and took control of Kiev.

*In 1253, Prince Daniel of Galicia was crowned the King of Rus (or King of Ruthenia) following the Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus.

**Lviv is also known as Lvov (in Russian), Lwow (in Polish) and Lemberg (Austrian)

In 1352, the Kingdom of Poland annexed the Kingdom of Galicia and Volhynia as the Ruthenian Volvodeship.

The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, was established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.

In 1804 it became a crown land of the Austrian Empire. From 1867 it was an ethnic Pole-administered autonomous crownland under Cisleithanian Austria-Hungary, until its dissolution in 1918.

The country was carved from the entire southwestern part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Among the many ceremonial titles of the princes of Hungary was "ruler of Galicia and Lodomeria".

Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian Empire ceded portions of Galicia to the Russian Empire, West Galicia and Tarnopol District.

The name "Galicia" is the Latinized form of Halych, a principality of the medieval Ruthenia. "Lodomeria", is also a Latinized form of Volodymyr-Volynskyi that was founded in the 10th century by Vladimir the Great and until the partitions of Poland was known simply as Volodymyr. King of Galicia and Lodomeria was a medieval title which the King of Hungary (Andrew II) adopted during his conquest of the region in the
12th century.

This historical region in Eastern Europe is divided today between Poland and Ukraine. The nucleus of historic Galicia consists of the modern Lviv, Ternopil, and Ivano-Frankivsk regions of western Ukraine.


In 1919-20 the Red Russian army defeated the White Russians (Ukrainians) and concluded a treaty with Poland, recognizing Poland's claim to Galica and Volynia.

Operation Vistula (Akcja Wisla) -1947
This land changed hands many times from Austria to Poland. Many Ukrainians were 'pushed out' (hand walked; known as chased) to northern Poland in the burned out areas originally Prussia. Their ancestral land became parkland. Those who claimed to be Ukrainian* were 'pushed' into USSR Ukraine.

*Those who owned land in Galicia were afraid to admit it because they would be called "kulaks" and sent to prison or death camps.

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