Jews Vs. Ukrainians, page 2

Sponsored by the Michigan Family History Network

Efforts to reconcile Jewish and Ukrainian People,
page 2

by Olga Kaczmar, 2005

17. The Jews restricted to living in the Pale of Settlement, primarily in Ukraine and Belarus, did not claim Ukrainian identity but Russian, even though they were not allowed to live in Russia proper, their allegiance to the Russian authority was obvious. This used to baffle me that Jews in Kiev would identify themselves as Russian Jews; whereas Ukrainians refused to be labeled Russian, unless, of course, they were transplants from Russian boundaries which was Stalin's plan to homogonize Ukraine. (This later is illustrated clearly by the Orange Revolution in 2005, where the Eastern half of Ukraine wanted the Russian-backed Victor Yanukovych, while the Western half wanted Victor Yushenko, the Ukrainian candidate.)

18. Ukrainians were the only group that was committing suicide rather than be deported back to USSR as per the Yalta agreement population exchange.

19. The Ukrainian / Jewish conflict escalated when famed Nazi hunter, Wiesenthal, went after low-level Ukrainian guards such as John Demjaniuk; while upper level officers like Wiesenthal were excused from prosecution. Wiesenthal is accused first of collaborating with the Soviets and later with the Nazis to save his hide.

"Did Wiesenthal voluntarily work for his wartime oppressors? That's the accusation leveled by Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky, himself of Jewish ancestry and leader for many years of his country's Socialist Party. During an interview with foreign journalists in 1975, Kreisky charged Wiesenthal with using 'Mafia methods', rejected his pretense of 'moral authority', and suggested that he was an agent for the German authorities" ( 2004).

Ukrainian author Myron B. Kuropas wrote about Wiesenthal:
"In 1939, he claims to have bribed an NKVD commissar and was spared deportation to Siberia along with other bourgeois Jews in Galicia. In 1941, he was saved from execution by a Ukrainian auxiliary policeman named Bodnar who spirited him away from the Nazis during the night. Later, Mr. Wiesenthal was singled out of a line of Jews – all of whom were summarily executed minutes later – by an SS officer who later provided him with double food rations. One can't help but wonder if these incidents were really the miracles Mr. Wiesenthal claims they were... Having studied Mr. Wiesenthal's recent releases and publications from Vienna and Los Angeles, I am increasingly convinced that he may be collaborating closely with the KGB and that in addition to wanting to live to see the last living Nazi on earth hanged, he appears to have an almost pathological need to discredit the Ukrainian and Baltic communities in the free world" ( 2004).

20. Richard C. Lukas wrote:
"The genocidal policies of the Nazis resulted in the deaths of as many Polish Gentiles as Polish Jews, thus making them co-victims in a Forgotten Holocaust. This Holocaust has been largely ignored because historians who have written on the subject of the Holocaust have chosen to interpret the tragedy in exclusivistic terms--namely, as the most tragic period in the history of the Jewish Diaspora. To them, the Holocaust was unique to the Jews, and they therefore have had little or nothing to say about the nine million Gentiles, including three million Poles, who also perished in the greatest tragedy the world has ever known. Little wonder that many people who experienced these events share the feeling of Nobel Laureate Czeslaw Milosz, who anxious when the meaning of the word Holocaust undergoes gradual modifications, so that the word begins to belong to the history of the Jews exclusively, as if among the victims there were not also millions of Poles, Russians, Ukrainians, and prisoners of other nationalities." -- Richard C. Lukas, preface to The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles under German Occupation 1939-1944 ( 2004).

21. "Historical literature of the Holocaust has focused on the six million Jewish victims to the exclusion of the sixteen to twenty million Gentile victims," Karen Silverstrim, MA Candidate, University of Central Arkansas.

22. Before Jews became the primary target, Poles were shipped to Auschwitz by the tens of thousands.150,000 Polish Catholics went to Auschwitz. In Sachsenhausen, 20,000 Poles perished, in Mauthausen, 30,000, in Neuengamme, 17,000 (Lukas 38); 35,000 went to Dachau, 33,000 Polish women went to Ravensbrück many of them to be experimented upon, with glass and other objects implanted in their uteruses. In view of that, to hear from uninformed members of the Jewish community that Poles participated in the annihilation of Jews makes you ask, "has the world really gone mad?"... "Yet even in these circumstances, at least one million people were involved in sheltering Jews (Lukas 150). In these circumstances, every one of them was a saint, a hero, deserving no fewer accolades than Raul Wallenberg who was sheltered from Nazi retribution by his nationality, wealth and social status. In contrast, Poles who helped Jews were protected by nothing," ( 2004).

23. "Poland's population losses during World War II were proportionately by far the greatest
[Davies biasely forgetting the Ukrainian 10 million loss]
of any nation participating in the war. Of its 35 million people before the war, Poland lost 6.5 million. An estimated 664,000 were battlefield deaths (this figure exceeds combined losses of the United States and Great Britain in WW II), and the remainder, or 90 percent, were civilians of all ages" (Norman Davies, Europe: A History, Oxford 1996, 1328; Richard Lukas, The Forgotten Holocaust, Univ. of Kentucky Press 1986, 39; The 1992 Almanac, Houghton Mifflin 310) (, 2004).

24. California State University Dominguez Hills professor and author, Aaron Hass, perpetuates the myth that the Jews were the only ones who suffered; suffered the most, and especially, weren't helped by any other nationality. I took his class and lecture after lecture, he kept stating that the Jewish Holocaust (6 million) was the biggest genocide in history, ignoring the 7-10 million Stalin genocide of Ukrainians, even after I brought it up. In Hass' book, The Aftermath, Living with the Holocaust, he wrote that "Even the Palestinian Jews resented European Jews coming into Palestine," jealously guarding the precious hard-fought land and resources with other Jews.

25. Holocaust writer, Alexander Kimel also adds fuel to the Ukrainian-Jewish fire, perpetuating the long-standing arguments that Ukrainians were not only bystanders but PARTNERS with the Nazis. His thesis is full of accusations and half-truths, blaming the Ukrainians rather than allow that they were victims themselves, succumbing to as many deaths as the Jews. Kimel would be more accurate if he said SOME Ukrainians in every sentence that he writes because Ukrainians weren't acting in a cohesive group but were taking orders either from Soviets or Nazis. Historians forget quickly that World War II, fought on Ukrainian soil with large-scale battles in Kyiv, Lviv, Kharkiv, Odessa, and Sevastopol ( and that it was a life and death struggle for the Ukrainian people. Kimel says Ukrainians played an extensive role in the Final Solution, which is a gross exaggeration of their powers under Hitler's command. He uses 17th Century Bogdan Chmielnicki (correct spelling Khmel'nyts'ki) example as proof of the Ukrainian serf bloody uprising against the Poles and killing the Jews when in fact, his bloody period was NOT about the Jews. The Cossack warrior Khmel'nyts'ki 's entire family was killed by the Poles, his estate was confiscated, he was bloody angry and he had nothing else to lose. The war he unleashed was about survival and struggle for land and they were ALL killing each other, with the Cossack being the victors. And yes, the Jews sided with the Poles and were the enemy to the Galician peasants. Kimel knows very little about Ukrainian history and inaccurately writes:

"Ukrainians were never a free people, always under the Polish or Russian yoke" when in truth Ukraine's history is older than the Russian history, i.e., -- beginning in 850s, the Kievan Rus reached the height of his power in the 10th century.

You can't trust Kimel's interpretation of history since it is one-sided and bares only a slight resemblance to the truth. I'm not defending atrocities; the atrocities were dealt by both two-sides of the Khmel'nyts'ki's peasant revolt ( 004).

26. As all Ukrainians weren't on the same side, not all Jews were either. According to Bryan Mark Rigg (B.A. Yale, M.A. and Ph.D. Cambridge) there were at least 150,000 Jews devotedly helping 'der Fuehrer' to conquer the world. Among these Nazi lackeys were decorated veterans and high-ranking officers, even generals and admirals (see the 526-page historical treatise HITLER'S JEWISH SOLDIERS by Bryan Mark Rigg, the University Press of Kansas, May 2002, ISBN 0-7006-1178-9).

27. Ukraine, whenever it was free to rule itself, had no anti-Jewish legislation.

"Ukrainian paper currency from this period [1917] is probably the only money in the world which was printed in four languages--Ukrainian, Polish, Russian and Yiddish" (The Ukrainians in America, Myron B. Kuropas,1972, pg. 29).

28. Author Yakov Suslensky, imprisoned for seven years for speaking of anti-Soviet propaganda, spoke of the Volksdeutch:

Among the collaborators and residents at the time were those called Ukrainians, but who were of German descent, with strong German allegiance, born in Ukraine but were not of Ukrainian Rus history and nationality. "These were the ones who joined the Einisatszkommando or the Gestapo" ( Yakov Suslensky's 1995 book is They Were True Heroes: Citizens of Ukraine-Righteous Among the Nations.

29. The Jewish commemorate the 65th anniversary of the tragedy of Babyn Yar, however, for the sake of objectivity, it should be recalled that at least half the victims at Babyn Yar (if not more) were gypsies and Ukrainians, who were viciously destroyed by the Nazis. According to official German records 33,771 Jews were killed in two days; but the killing did not stop there. Babiy Yar became the burial place not only of Jews but of Ukrainians, Russians, Hungarians, Czechs, gypsies and prisoners of war. No one will ever know how many people died at Babiy Yar, but estimates put the figures at more than 100,000, 33,771 Jews.

Among the victims were also entire crews of ships of the famous Dnipro Flotilla as well as the defenders of Kyiv-soldiers and commanders of the Southwestern Front. Here is the grave of the unvanquished Olena Teliha and other Ukrainian patriots shot by the Gestapo in 1942, whose memory are for some reason not being honored on the state level. (PRESS CONFERENCE, UNIAN, Kyiv, Ukraine, Thu, Sep 28, 2006, Action Ukraine Report (AUR) #770, Article 5, Kyiv, Ukraine, Sunday, October 8, 2006)

30. About half of the 200,000 Ukrainians were resettled by the International Refugee Organization (IRO) to USA, UK, Australia and Canada. Marta Dyczok provides an explanation why the Grand Alliance [Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin] did not recognize the Ukrainian nationality of the refugees. In the words of one Western official, Ukrainian patriots were to be considered as fascists and enemies of the people. The Grand Alliance and Ukrainian Refugees, (2000; ISBN 0-333-71109-2) Marta Dyczok, Assistant Professor, Departments of History and Political Science University of Western Ontario, Chapter 3 (p. 47).

31. Stefan Lemieszewski writes: Furthermore, part of Stalin's tactics used in forced repatriation included a propaganda campaign falsely smearing Ukrainian refugees as Nazi war criminals (today, a continuing campaign).

32. General Eisenhower, who initially supported the forcible repatriation (from Germany to Russia) policy, gradually became appalled by the "suicides among individuals who preferred to die than return to their native lands.'' On 4 September 1945 he overstepped his authority and suspended the use of force in repatriation in the US zones of operation in Germany. Two months later Field Marshall Montgomery introduced a similar suspension in the British zones. (

33. In best-selling novel of 1983, Poland, author/researcher James A Michener wrote:
Ukraine would become one of the world's greatest tragedies, a land in which the oppressors would allow ten million citizens to starve to death [1932-33], where the native language would be outlawed, and where all kinds of depredations would be visited upon a distrusted and despised subject people. In despair, in 1939 the Ukrainians would try to side with Hitler in hopes that he might rescue them from Russian domination, and when this proved a fatal miscalculation, the revenge of the Communist victors would be harsher than ever.

34. The archives even contain documents proving that in the 1950s, in order to divert attention from Russia’s crimes in the Holodomor, Russia convinced the East German secret police, the Stasi, to forge documents alleging that Ukrainian nationalists had collaborated with the Nazis against Jews during World War II. [SSU (SBU) site English version: and]

In fact, the opposite is true – Ukrainians and their military, political and religious leaders proactively opposed German persecution of Jews and worked to protect and rescue Jews from Nazis.  Article by Peter Borisow, New York, New York; Canadian American Slavic Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, (Fall 2008). Pg. 251-265; Charles Schlacks, Publisher, Idyllwild, CA;[See Herbert Romerstein, “Divide and Conquer: The KGB Disinformation Campaign against Ukrainians and Jews,” Ukrainian Quarterly, LX, no. 3 (Fall 2004).]

35. The Jews will not honor Archbishop Metropolitan Sheptyts'kyi - Reason why Archbishop Sheptitsky has not (yet) been honored with Righteous Gentile award:

Turned down after consideration by Yad Vashem’s Commission for the Designation of the Righteous Among the Nations (the commission convenes more than 20 times each year in closed sessions) more than a dozen times since 1964, Metropolitan Sheptitsky remains arguably Yad Vashem’s most difficult case. While no one denies that he was responsible for the rescue of many Jews, his critics point to many factors that have made him ineligible to be named a Righteous Gentile: as Ukraine’s highest-ranking cleric, he putatively faced no personal danger for opposing the Germans’ Final Solution; as the acknowledged leader of the wartime Ukrainian nationalist movement, he originally welcomed the Nazis, seeing them as a means to Ukrainian independence; as the head of the Uniate church, he gave his blessings to the formation of two Ukrainian SS divisions; as a man with longtime sympathetic relations to the Jewish community, he did not proactively seek out Jews to assist but did open his church’s doors to people who approached him.

For more of the story, see:
Submitted by: Lavrentiy

36. OUN-UPA- Both the Nazis and Russians tried to make Ukrainians look bad re the Jewish issue.

In closing:
The Ukrainian point of view is: "My God, Ukrainian blood was shed all over Europe, in Ukraine, in Germany, in Poland and in Russia, in far greater numbers than any other nationality. The Jews are trying to rewrite history to show they were most impacted and that Ukrainians were co-conspirators to Hitler."

What happened to the six millions Jews in World War II was horrific! What happened to the five million Poles was horrific! What happened to the 10 million Ukrainians was horrific! World War II was a raging hell for more than just the Jews. So yes, Jewish blood was on Ukrainian hands and Ukrainian blood was on Jewish hands. We've got to start the healing exchange between the Jews and the Ukrainians, not teach new generations to continue the hate. It's such an injustice to those million of Ukrainians who perished brutally between 1930 and 1950s.

Yehuda Bauer, Alexander Kimel, CBS's Morley Safer and Aaron Hass are divisive spokesmen. New kind of leaders are emerging who bring understanding between Jews and Ukrainians. Radio talk show host and commentator, Dennis Prager, teaches cohesiveness to Jews and Christians; encouraging them to support each other in common goals. Marco Carynnyk, is writer and spokesman on Jewish-Ukrainian relations. Together and Apart in Brzezany, by Dr. Shimon Redlich writes of the conflict in inter-war Galicia was between Ukrainians, Jews and Poles, pointing out prejudices, hatreds and how Poles, Jews and Ukrainians have perceived each other.

In 2005 the new Ukrainian president, Viktor Yushchenko, vowed to bridge the gap caused by trouble relations under Czarist and Soviet regimes. He said on his last trip to Auschwitz he had gathered up soil, which he presented to a meeting of Ukrainian Jews. "And I will guarantee that in Ukraine there will never be anti-Semitism, xenophobia or hatred between people," he said. "There will never again be a Jewish question in my country. The tragedy of the past will never be repeated on the soil of Ukraine." Yuschenko's father, Andriy, was one of 14,000 Soviet [Ukrainian] soldiers, tattooed and held as slave labor in Auschwitz. (From article by Ron Popeski, Reuters, Krakow, Poland, January 27, 2005.)

New York, Monday, November 21, 2005 - The American Jewish Committee (AJC) welcomed the U.S. Senate vote to lift the trade restrictions on Ukraine that were imposed on the Soviet Union in 1974 when Congress adopted the Jackson-Vanik Amendment to press for freedom of emigration. AJC urged the U.S. House of Representatives to vote in support of lifting the restrictions on Ukraine, so the measure can be delivered to the White House for signature by President Bush.

Divide and Conquer: The KGB  disinformation campaign against Ukrainians and  Jews

Ukrainian Quarterly November 8, 2004
By Herbert Romerstein
Herbert Romerstein is an adjunct professor at the Institute of  World Politics. He was a professional staff member of the Permanent  Select Committee on Intelligence of the US House of Representatives  and served as chief of the Office to Counter Soviet Disinformation and  Active Measures at the United States Information  Agency.

Ukrainian Quarterly
Publication Date: Fall  2004

The Soviet regime had a serious image problem in the 1970s and '80s.  While the communist propaganda apparatus was trying to present Soviet Russia  as a normal peaceful state, in the United States and other free countries,  people of Ukrainian, Jewish and Baltic origin were working together to  expose the repressive and imperialist nature of the communist dictatorship. They picketed Soviet embassies, provided the press with names of prisoners  in the Soviet Gulag and demanded freedom for the peoples of the Soviet  empire.

The Politburo of the Soviet Communist Party assigned the KGB to solve  this problem. The Soviet secret police and intelligence service had a long  history of using disinformation to discredit political opponents. After the  collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Leonid Shabarshin, who formerly headed  the First Chief Directorate (Foreign Intelligence) of the KGB, explained to  the Moscow newspaper Trud that one of the jobs of the KGB was disinformation  for "compromising anti-Soviets.'"

In Shebarshin's words, "during the Cold War the essence of our active  measures was to inflict political and moral damage on our basic opponent,  the United States ... [so] we compromised political figures, organs of the  press, and Americans whose activities were in some way unwelcome [to the  Soviets]." The KGB veteran revealed that every "active measure" against the enemies of the Soviet Union abroad was submitted by KGB to the Politburo  "and was implemented only with its permission. The results of the action  were also reported to the Politburo."

The KGB was given the important job of creating division in the  anti-Soviet camp. English language propaganda books and pamphlets were  prepared with KGB assistance for dissemination in the West. One such  pamphlet complained that Ukrainian nationalists arrange noisy demonstrations  in support of the Israeli aggressors (as has happened in West Germany),  while the Zionist chieftains declare their ‘firm intention to continue close cooperation' with the OUN [Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists] killers.  Therefore, both partners in this wicked marriage publicly admit the real  nature of the sinister alliance between Zionists and Ukrainian bourgeois  nationalists.

To the Soviets, those who opposed them would only do so on orders of the  CIA. The pamphlet went on "The malignant partnership of the Magen David  [Star of David] and the nationalist trident [the Ukrainian national emblem],  fostered by the CIA, has long become a reality."

The Soviets used foreign communists to spread the  disinformation.One of them, Michael Hanusiak, a member of the Communist  Party of the United States (CPUSA), visited Ukraine in the early 1970s,  where the KGB provided him with information on Ukrainians who were  supposedly Nazi war criminals.

Soviet attempts to discredit Jews
During World War II, as a young communist, Hanusiak looked to  Michael Tkach as his friend and mentor. Tkach was the head of the Ukrainian  section of the International Workers Order, a communist front, and was  editor of the communist newspaper Ukrainian Daily News, based in New York.  He was also an agent of the NKVD, subsequently known as KGB, spying against  the United States. Later Hanusiak replaced Tkach as the editor of The Ukrainian News. It was no longer a daily but continued to publish Soviet  propaganda in New York.

In 1993 Hanusiak celebrated his 80th birthday. Gus Hall,  head of the CPUSA, wrote him, "On this special occasion we want to  congratulate you on your many years of outstanding contributions in the  leadership of the Communist Party, USA, as well as other progressive  organizations." Hanusiak's Communist Party comrade and close friend Lewis  Moroze wrote to him, "My wife Dora and I have a dream that in the not too  distant future the Soviet peoples will restore socialism to the Soviet  Union, and the Morozes and the Hanusiaks will join hands in a walk side by  side down the Krishchatik in the city of Kyiv in the Ukraine." It was too late for them: Ukraine was free and the Soviet Russian empire could never be  reestablished.

Hanusiak used some of the KGB information in a 1973 book called  Lest We Forget. It was republished in Canada in 1976 with introductions that  revealed its real purpose. One introduction signed Joshua Gershman  complained, "It is no secret that leaders of the capitalist political  parties in Canada - including Jews - are often honored guests at  celebrations of the Ukrainian nationalists and other chauvinist ethnic  community organizations, particularly at the time of elections.They express solidarity with the misleading slogans calling for the 'liberation'  of the Ukraine and other Soviet Republics. . . . Thus we witnessed in  Canada, in 1971, during the official friendship visit of Soviet Premier Kosygin, the ugly collaboration of cold warriors among the Jewish, Ukrainian, Hungarian and other ethnic groups, demonstrating against the  Soviet Union."

In another introduction to the book, Peter Krawchuk complained  that the Ukrainian nationalists and Zionists "in their hatred of the Soviet  Union ... have become partners." In reality, many of the Jews who opposed  the communist empire were not Zionist. The communists used the term  "Zionist" as a synonym for Jews. During World War II the NKVD used the code  word "Rats" for both Jews and Zionists. When the NKVD assigned agent Robert  Soblen (Ruvelis Sobolevicius) to take over the spying on Trotskyites and Jews in New York, the secret communication referred to them under the  code-names "polecats" and "rats."

It is interesting to note that at the same time, the Nazis in occupied  Ukraine tried to divide Ukrainians and Jews by distributing a leaflet saying  that "Jews are like rats." It showed a picture of a rat superimposed on the  Star of David, the same Jewish symbol that the above-mentioned Soviet  propaganda pamphlet, complained was in partnership with the Ukrainian  trident.

KGB methodology to divide Jews from Ukrainians and  Lithuanians
The KGB methodology in attempting to divide Jews from Ukrainians and  other ethnic groups can best be understood by examining a collection of  secret KGB materials discovered in Lithuania by the French scholar Francoise  Thom. The KGB used both agents and "co-optees." The KGB's official  definition of agent was "An individual who consciously, systematically and clandestinely carries out particular intelligence assignments in his own  country or abroad." The difference was that the agent was a full time  operative of any nationality, while the co-optee was a Soviet citizen, only  occasionally called upon to carry out KGB orders.

In July 1980 the KGB in Lithuania wrote a memorandum on "Suggestions on  active measures in connection with the attempts of the Zionists and  Lithuanian nationalist émigrés to coordinate their activities." According to  the memo, the "Zionists" had launched an anti-Soviet campaign which had been  reported in the Lithuanian language press in the West. The leaders of the Lithuanian nationalist groups made contact with Jewish groups "with the aim  of coordinating hostile activities against the Soviet Union with  them."

The campaign against the Lithuanians was assigned to two KGB agents code  named "Aleksas" and "Germanas" and two cooptees, Yu. Ronderis and Ya.  Vinitskas. (While the agents mentioned in KGB reports were given code names,  the co-optees were listed by their real names.) The KGB cooptee Yu. Ronderis  was assigned to find people in Israel who could sign statements addressed to  American Jews attacking the Lithuanians.

By 1987 the KGB's problems had intensified. Lithuanian nationalists were  publicly active in Lithuania. Morever, Lithuanian Jews were active in the  nationalist movement. One in particular, Emmanuel Zingeris, was a member of  the national board of the Lithuanian national rebirth movement, "Sajudis."  He is not a Zionist and describes himself as "a Lithuanian of Jewish background." Zingeris is now chairman of the Lithuanian Parliamentary Committee on Human Rights. Zingeris became a particular target of KGB  disinformation.

A top secret cable dated September 23, 1987 from the KGB in Moscow to the  KGB in Vilnius revealed that an agent with the code name "Yablonsky" had  been assigned to travel to Israel to try to discredit Zingeris. According to  the cable, "Before his departure for Israel 'Yablonsky' received an  assignment from Service Z of the Lithuanian KGB to discredit Zingeris with  Zionist circles." Service Z was the local section of Directorate Z (formerly 5th Directorate) of the KGB which had the job of persecuting  dissidents.

'Yablonsky' had relatives at Kol Israel broadcasting service. He was  ordered to tell them, as well as officials of the charitable organization,  The Jewish Agency, that Zingeris was involved with Lithuanian nationalists  who had murdered Jews. That was a lie, and 'Yablonsky' failed in his  mission. He explained to his KGB masters that The Jewish Agency, which  provided financial support to help Jews abroad, was receiving money from the  Joint Distribution Committee in the United States which would be angry with  anyone who attacked Zingeris. "Yablonsky" may not have given the KGB a true  excuse, but Zingeris was justifiably held in high regard by American  Jews.

The role of East Germany's Stasi
The East German Ministry for State Security, known as Stasi, worked  closely with the KGB. Like the KGB it was responsible for both internal  repression and espionage abroad. Naturally Stasi played an important role in  the disinformation campaign. With German efficiency, Stasi explained in a 1969 report how it conducted disinformation:

Periodicals will address specific persons and groups. One can select  actual events, problems etc. using a mixture of truths, half truths, fiction  and other well conceived interpretations, so the recipient finds them  believable, thus causing the anticipated success. Exact knowledge of  conditions within the particular government in the operational area is  imperative. Absolutely necessary is thorough knowledge of western language  use, as well as psychological, sensitive tactics in approach.

Stasi also explained how it responded to those who exposed human rights  violations in the communist empire. It considered the truth about communism "harassment" and said in its report, "Through distribution of aggressively  directed messages, the enemy will be disinformed and forced to abandon his harassment campaign thus keeping him disturbed and pointlessly occupied."  These activities were coordinated with the appropriate officials of the  Communist Party (SED). Stasi reported, "There are near daily conversations  with the member of the Politburo responsible for agitation in the West,  Comrade [Albert] Norden or Comrade [Werner] Lamberz, Secretary of the  Central Committee and Chairman of the Agitation Commission of the  Politburo." Albert Norden had been a German Communist Party activist since  he was 16 years old, in 1920. During World War II he operated in the United  States as a communist propagandist. In East Germany he served as the loudest  and most vicious voice against the West in the communist  dictatorship.

In 1959 he led the smear campaign against the West German Federal  Minister of Refugees, Theodor Oberlander. Norden issued a book attacking  Oberlander and at a press conference in East Berlin on October 22, 1959,  Norden identified Oberlander as the political commander of the Ukrainian  Nachtigall Unit, which together with the German Wehrmacht fought against the Soviet Union. That was the true part of Norden's story.

The false part was the claim that the military unit was involved in a  pogrom against the Jews of Lviv. The official reports of the Nazi  Einsatzgruppen of actions against the Jews, instigated by the Nazi  propaganda that the Jews were responsible for the communist atrocities  against Ukrainians, do not show that Nachtigall was involved. In a report  date July 16, 1941, we read, "In the first hours after the Bolshevik  withdrawal, the Ukrainian populations displayed commendable activity against  the Jews. For example, the Dobromil synagogue was set on fire and 50 Jews  were killed by the enraged crowd at Sambor. Maltreating them, the Lvov inhabitants rounded up about 1000 Jews and took them to the GPU [i.e., NKVD]  prison which has been occupied by the Wehrmacht."

Active measures against Ukrainian leader Stephan  Bandera
Norden's book was the usual vile disinformation, but its worst charge  related to the murder of the leader of the Organization of Ukrainian  Nationalists, Stephan Bandera. According to Norden, Bandera "the Commander  of Nachtigall" was murdered on October 15, 1959 to prevent him from  revealing what he knew about the supposed crimes of Oberlander.

The commander of Nachtigall was not Bandera, but Roman  Shukhevych, who later commanded the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA). Bandera  was head of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), the political movement, which on June 30, 1941, proclaimed reestablishment of an  independent Ukrainian state headed by Yaroslav Stetsko. The KGB then destroyed Bandera with the most intense method on the active measures spectrum: assassination. Bogdan Stashynsky, the KGB assassin, later defected  to West Germany and revealed how Soviet intelligence had ordered him to  murder the Ukrainian leader. He served a prison sentence in West Germany for his crime.

Bandera was hated both by the communists and the Nazis. On July 2,  1941, SS Einsatzgruppe B reported to the Chief of the Security Police that  "measures against the Bandera group, in particular against Bandera himself, are in preparation.They will be carried out as soon as possible." On July 9  the Ukrainian nationalist leaders, including Bandera (arrested already on  July 5) and Stetsko, were arrested by the SS. They spent most of the war as prisoners in Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

A Gestapo report dated August 18, 1941, reveals that "The OUN in Lvov  sells war-loan stamps and releases pamphlets demanding Bandera's return.  From Lvov, posters are released declaring that a ‘free and independent Ukraine' must be created according to the motto "Ukraine for the Ukrainians,  under the leadership of the OUN.' Orders of the German Army are frequently  ignored. ..."

While persecuting the OUN, the Nazis agitated the population against the Jews. The communists had helped them by murdering Ukrainian intellectuals,  officially considered enemies of Soviet power, before fleeing the German invasion. An Einsatzgruppe reported on July 16th that about twenty thousand  Ukrainians had disappeared from Lviv, eighty percent of them belonging to  the intelligentsia. The prisons were crammed with the bodies of murdered Ukrainians. In Dobromil eighty-two bodies were found. Four were of Jews.

One Ukrainian witness to the pre-war Soviet mass murders was the  journalist Apollon Trembowetskyi, also called Petro Pavlovych, who testified  before the United States House Committee on Un-American Activities that he wondered at the time "why so many were arrested, especially Ukrainians,  those of Polish decent - half Polish, half Ukrainian and many Jewish people  who were arrested in our town. ..."

Another eyewitness, whose identity was protected, gave his evidence to  the Ukrainian Historical Association. He had been a correspondent of  Trembowetskyi's newspaper Vinnytski Visty, and had access to the lists of victims found by the Nazis in Vinnytsia. The Nazis ordered him to publish  the nationality of Polish and Ukrainian victims but to list Russians, Jews  and Gypsies as "nationality unknown." The Nazis were agitating the  population against the Jews at the time and did not want it revealed that  the communists murdered Jewish intellectuals as well as Ukrainians.

Nazi and Communist triangulation against Ukrainians and Jews
The East German propagandists conveniently ignored the action of the Soviets, murdering millions of people of all nationalities - but  particularly intellectuals. The Stasi boasted that its campaign against  Oberlander had been successful and that he had been removed from the West  German government.

In 1974 Oberlander visited Washington, DC and participated in the  Congress of the World Anti-Communist League. British anti-communists had  warned that a neo-Nazi group from Latin America had infiltrated the Congress. Oberlander joined with Yaroslav and Slava Stetsko and the leaders  of the American delegation, former Congressman Walter Judd and Lee Edwards,  to expose and discredit the neo-Nazis.

The anti-Nazi caucus was successful and the neo-Nazis exposed themselves  when they voted against a resolution presented by Oberlander to condemn the  human rights violations in communist East Germany. The neo-Nazis supported  the communist dictatorship. At this writing, Mrs. Stetsko is a member of  Parliament in Free Ukraine.

Human rights leader Avraham Shifrin headed the Israeli delegation to the  WACL Congress. He had spent 10 years as a prisoner in a Soviet slave labor  camp. He told this writer that he had become a Zionist in the Gulag and how Ukrainians and Jews learned to work together when they were both being  persecuted by the same KGB. The Ukrainian Insurgent Army, led by Shukhevych, fought against the Nazis and continued the war against the communists until  the 1950s.

The horrors inflicted by both the Nazis and communists brought Ukrainians and Jews together. Jews participated in the UPA as well as other  anti-communist and anti-Nazi units. The Soviet propagandists  complained,

During the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945, many Zionists were  members of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) and the Ukrainian People's  Revolutionary Army (UPRA). For example, the Zionist Haim Sigal, alias  Sigalenko, was a chieftain and 'Bulba's' right-hand man. . . . A number of  Zionists such as Margosh, Maximovich, 'Kun' and others were officers in the  Ukrainian Insurgent Army. According to a report by a Nazi Einsatz-commando  Zionists closely cooperated with the Bandera ringleaders. The latter provided them with the forged German documents.

Only Nazis and communists could complain that Ukrainian nationalists saved the lives of Jews by providing them with false documents  during the Nazi occupation. That story happens to be true. A report to the  Chief of the Security Police in Berlin dated March 30, 1942 reveled that  "Today, it has been clearly established that the Bandera movement provided  forged passports not only for its own members, but also for Jews."

One Ukrainian who saved hundreds of Jews was the 86 year-old  leader of Ukraine's Catholics, Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytskyi. His story was told by Rabbi David Kahane, one of the Jews he rescued. With the help of  his brother, Abbot Kliment Sheptytskyi, the Metropolitan hid Jews and, according to Rabbi Kahane, continued to warn the Ukrainian people against evil and in his pastoral  letters he endeavored to keep them away from hatred in general and from  racial hatred in particular. He told us he was issuing a pastoral letter to the Ukrainian people and the clergy on the subject of mercy, in which he  stated emphatically that in these times of trial one must pity not only the Ukrainians and the Christians, but everyone, regardless of his  religion.

Rabbi Kahane later went to Israel where he became the Chief Rabbi of the Israeli Air Force.

Manufacturing 'Nazi war criminals'
The communists reviled Metropolitan Sheptytskyi and stated that he "never ever raised his voice against the mass annihilation of Lviv residents. . . .  " Rabbi Kahane exposed this lie. Communist hatred of the Jews was obvious when Soviet propagandists wrote, "We know from history that freedom of  thought and a scientific view of the world have always been mercilessly  suppress by Judaism."

But it was important to them to divide the Jews and Ukrainians in  the West who had joined together to expose the Soviet Russian totalitarian  regime. Thus, the KGB in Ukraine provided American communist Michael  Hanusiak with a list of alleged "Nazi war criminals" from Ukraine. While  caring little if at all for Nazi crimes against Jews, the communists  understood that Americans would want anyone who engaged in such activity,  regardless of their nationality, punished - no matter how long it  took.

The KGB wanted to use this legitimate concern of Americans as a weapon to  divide their Ukrainian and Jewish enemies, to discredit the large immigrant communities in the United States and Canada, and to discredit any emergence of Ukrainian nationalism.

One of the names Hanusiak brought to the United States was that of John Demianiuk (Demjanjuk). His name was given to the United States  Justice Department, which began an investigation of the retired Ohio auto  worker. Soon, Demianiuk was accused of being "Ivan the Terrible," a brutal  guard at the Nazi Treblinka death camp.

In the horrors that took place in that camp, "Ivan the Terrible" became a  legend as the cruelest of all the murderers. After undergoing a long legal  ordeal, Demianiuk was extradited to Israel where he was convicted and  sentenced to death. The collapse of the Soviet Union allowed access  to KGB files in Ukraine and probably saved the man's life. The evidence showed that "Ivan the Terrible" was Ivan Marchenko, not Demianiuk.  The Israeli court, after examining the new evidence, reversed the conviction  of Demianiuk and allowed him to return to the United States.

The question is - Who was Marchenko? He was a Soviet prisoner of war who  had volunteered to work for the Nazis as a camp guard. A 1961 KGB report on  the interrogation of Sergey Vasylyenko revealed that Marchenko was the man the Jews in the camp called "Ivan the Terrible."

According to Vasylyenko, "He exhibited special savagery in dealing with  people in the killing process, he killed people with an obvious satisfaction  and beat them with whatever was at hand and however he fancied."  More importantly, the KGB knew that toward the end of the war that  Marchenko had gone to Yugoslavia and joined with Tito's communist partisans. He remained in Yugoslavia after the war and the KGB knew of his whereabouts  in 1948-1949.

In the summer of 1948, Stalin broke with Tito. Soviet propaganda  accused Tito, who remained a committed communist, of being a fascist. In October 1949, the New York County Communist Party  issued a Discussion Outline and Study Guide entitled The Struggle Against  the Tito Fascists - Agents of Imperialism.

This theme permeated worldwide Soviet propaganda. However, KGB  propaganda never pointed out that the Tito government was harboring Ivan Marchenko, the Nazi war criminal known as "Ivan the Terrible." This issue raises the question as to whether Marchenko was not in fact a Soviet agent  carrying out his atrocities on the order of the NKVD (KGB). We know of other  cases where KGB operatives pretended to be anti-communists and carried out atrocities to blame them on their enemies and seize the moral high  ground.

The main piece of Soviet-provided evidence against Demianiuk was a  supposed identity card showing his name and picture at the Travniki training  camp for guards. The authenticity of the document was challenged as it was apparent that the picture had come from another document and that the card  contained other inaccuracies. That was not enough to acquit Demianiuk, but  the KGB's internal files released after the Soviet collapse convinced the Israelis of Demianiuk's innocence.

Internal KGB reports describe Soviet operations against Ukraine
In 1980 a report was prepared by KGB Colonel V. Medvedev titled "More Culture in the Work on the Nazi Criminals." It was published in the  internal, secret KGB magazine Sbornik KGB.

Colonel Medvedev boasted of the materials provided by KGB to the Western  governments to prosecute Nazi war criminals. However, he complained that  "the quality of the materials ... sometimes make it impossible to send the materials abroad." Such documents, he said, are usually sent back by KGB  headquarters to be redone: "The analysis of the weak points shows that  sometimes they are the result of the inattentiveness and inaccuracy of the functionaries."

KGB technicians often took a long time to fix them. As a result there was  a delay in providing the documents to the Western governments. In Medvedev's  words, "Practice shows that concrete evidence of the witnesses thoroughly  interrogated on a high professional level appear to be very important proof  in the Nazi criminal's cases." Some of the old interrogation transcripts  were so "standardized" that the constant repetition of phrases by different  witnesses made it apparent that they were false.

We had not seen these admissions during the 1980s when this writer was a  staff member of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, but  anti-communists such as Congressman John Ashbrook (R-Ohio), understood not  to trust the KGB. In retrospect it might seem strange to point out that U.S.  government officials, including lawyers, senior political appointees and  elected officials, did indeed trust the KGB-furnished information and were  critical of the skeptics. But the lawmaker saw fit to warn his colleagues  and the public.

In the Congressional Record of May 28, 1981 Congressman Ashbrook said,  "World War II ended 36 years ago but many of us still remember its horrors.  We should never forgive and never forget the atrocities committed by the Nazis against the Jews. The Nazi murders of 6 million Jews and millions of  Christians are crimes that require punishment of all who are guilty.  At the same time, we must not forget the Communist murders of even  greater millions of Christians, Jews, and Moslems. And we cannot forgive  these crimes. Hitler and Stalin and most of their top henchmen are dead.  But, the present leadership in the Soviet Union were all part of the Stalin  murder machine."

Ashbrook continued, "We cannot condemn anyone based on Soviet evidence,  but we must make sure that no Nazi or Communist criminal should receive  sanctuary here. We can be sure of this be using our basic American laws of evidence. Soviet evidence is tainted and should not be utilized in American courts."

Now we have available the evidence from the Soviet and other  communist archives of what really happened in the past. In the  future, we must honor those who fought and died against communist  dictatorship and learned in that struggle how people of different religions  and nationalities could work together against the common enemy.

Stalin's Jews
We mustn't forget that some of greatest murderers of modern times were Jewish
Published:  12.21.06, 23:35 / Israel Opinion

Here's a particularly forlorn historical date: Almost 90 years ago, between the 19th and 20th of December 1917, in the midst of the Bolshevik revolution and civil war, Lenin signed a decree calling for the establishment of The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage, also known as Cheka.

Within a short period of time, Cheka became the largest and cruelest state security organization. Its organizational structure was changed every few years, as were its names: From Cheka to GPU, later to NKVD, and later to KGB.

We cannot know with certainty the number of deaths Cheka was responsible for in its various manifestations, but the number is surely at least 20 million, including victims of the forced collectivization, the hunger, large purges, expulsions, banishments, executions, and mass death at Gulags.

Whole population strata were eliminated: Independent farmers, ethnic minorities, members of the bourgeoisie, senior officers, intellectuals, artists, labor movement activists, "opposition members" who were defined completely randomly, and countless members of the Communist party itself.

In his new, highly praised book "The War of the World," Historian Niall Ferguson writes that no revolution in the history of mankind devoured its children with the same unrestrained appetite as did the Soviet revolution. In his book on the Stalinist purges, Tel Aviv University's Dr. Igal Halfin writes that Stalinist violence was unique in that it was directed internally.

Lenin, Stalin, and their successors could not have carried out their deeds without wide-scale cooperation of disciplined "terror officials," cruel interrogators, snitches, executioners, guards, judges, perverts, and many bleeding hearts who were members of the progressive Western Left and were deceived by the Soviet regime of horror and even provided it with a kosher certificate.

All these things are well-known to some extent or another, even though the former Soviet Union's archives have not yet been fully opened to the public. But who knows about this? Within Russia itself, very few people have been brought to justice for their crimes in the NKVD's and KGB's service. The Russian public discourse today completely ignores the question of "How could it have happened to us?" As opposed to Eastern European nations, the Russians did not settle the score with their Stalinist past.

And us, the Jews? An Israeli student finishes high school without ever hearing the name ' Genrikh Yagoda,' the greatest Jewish murderer of the 20th Century, the GPU's deputy commander and the founder and commander of the NKVD. Yagoda diligently implemented Stalin's collectivization orders and is responsible for the deaths of at least 10 million people. His Jewish deputies established and managed the Gulag system. After Stalin no longer viewed him favorably, Yagoda was demoted and executed, and was replaced as chief hangman in 1936 by Yezhov, the "bloodthirsty dwarf."

Yezhov was not Jewish but was blessed with an active Jewish wife. In his book 'Stalin: Court of the Red Star', Jewish historian Sebag Montefiore writes that during the darkest period of terror, when the Communist killing machine worked in full force, Stalin was surrounded by beautiful, young Jewish women.

Stalin's close associates and loyalists included member of the Central Committee and Politburo Lazar Kaganovich. Montefiore characterizes him as the 'first Stalinist' and adds that those starving to death in Ukraine, an unparalleled tragedy in the history of human kind aside from the Nazi horrors and Mao's terror in China, did not move Kaganovich.

Many Jews sold their soul to the devil of the Communist revolution and have blood on their hands for eternity. We'll mention just one more: Leonid Reichman, head of the NKVD's special department and the organization's chief interrogator, who was a particularly cruel sadist.

In 1934, according to published statistics, 38.5 percent of those holding the most senior posts in the Soviet security apparatuses were of Jewish origin. They too, of course, were gradually eliminated in the next purges. In a fascinating lecture at a Tel Aviv University convention this week, Dr. Halfin described the waves of soviet terror as a 'carnival of mass murder', ' fantasy of purges', and ' essianism of evil'. Turns out that Jews too, when they become captivated by messianic ideology, can become great murderers, among the greatest known by modern history.

The Jews active in official communist terror apparatuses (In the Soviet Union and abroad) and who at times led them, did not do this, obviously, as Jews, but rather, as Stalinists, communists, and "Soviet people." Therefore, we find it easy to ignore their origin and 'play dumb': What do we have to do with them? But let's not forget them. My own view is different. I find it unacceptable that a person will be considered a member of the Jewish people when he does great things, but not considered part of our people when he does amazingly despicable things.

Submitted by Alan Newark:
Roma Sonia Horodysky-Kowcznd is
My grandfather aided and hid Jews in Western Ukraine during the Second World War. I would like to know how one would go about searching for witnesses or people who were indeed helped by my grandfather in order to have my grandfather publicly recognized for his bravery by having his name included in The Righteous among Nations list.

I realize this search may be fruitless, due to the length of time that has elapsed between now and then.

He lived in Pomorjany, Brody (where he hid Jews in his home) and ,all towns and cities in Ukraine. My aunt (his sister-in-law) is still living and could stand as one witness. My mother (his daughter) is also living and could stand as another witness. I know of three other people who knew of this and are also still living.

I do not know the names of the people he hid, but there may be someone who might remember his name. My grandfather was also a prisoner of war in the concentration camp at Bereza Kartuska. Do you know where I can get any additional information on this particular concentration camp (ie. names of prisoners, dates, pictures of the camp etc).

Any internet searches I have done have yielded very little information. Any help would be greatly appreciated!
Thank you! With much gratitude.      
Roma Sonia Horodysky-Kowcz

12/2/2011 Submitted by: Alan Newark

The Western Ukrainian People's Republic (ZUNR), proclaimed on November 1, 1918 after a successful revolt of the ethnic Ukrainian elements of the Austro-Hungarian garrisons in Galicia, had a population of 6,2 mln (71% Ukrainians, 14% Poles, 13% Jews, and 2% Germans).

Whereas Polish minority launched an insurgency in Lviv, supported by the intervention from Poland, denying Ukrainian right for national statehood in Galicia, the Jewish community maintained a friendly neutrality, recognized the Ukrainian government and even participated in the armed struggle.

According to the existing contemporary reports, the Jewish population of such districts as Buchach, Rava-Russka, Rudky?Komarno and Olesk supported the Ukrainian revolt of November 1, 1918 immediately after it was successfully accomplished. In the town of Dolyna the local Jewish community even swore the oath of allegiance to the new Western Ukrainian state and declared its members the state citizens.

The Jewish youth in the city of Ternopil (provisional ZUNR capital) initiated the formation of a student battalion in the Ukrainian Galician Army in December 1918, known as the 1st Jewish Battalion, which, however, was not completed at the time. In November/December 1918 in Western Ukrainian cities and towns, where considerable Jewish communities traditionally settled, multi-party representative Jewish assemblies were called by the prominent Jewish leaders for closer cooperation with the Ukrainian authorities.

The Jewish National Councils were created in Ternopil, Drogobych, Stanislav, Stryj, Boryslav, Buchach, Kolomyja, Kalush, Chortkiv, Borshchiv, Burshtyn, Gvizdec, Gusiatyn, Zhydachuv, Zabolotiv, Zalishchyky, Kopychynci, Nadvirna, Otynia, Pidgajci, Snjatyn, Tysmenyca, and Tlumach.

In Peremyshl, where the control of the city was established by the Ukrainian troops on November 2?3, 1918, the confrontation with the Polish units began on November 4, so the Jewish community, sympathetic towards Ukrainians, established two representative bodies: the Civilian National Jewish Council and Military People's Jewish Council.

The latter controlled the Jewish militia unit, created from the personnel oif the 9th Infantry Regiment. Unfortunately, the outcome of the fighting on November 10-11, 1918 and the occupation of the city by Polish troops, brought the cooperation between Ukrainians and Jews in Peremyshl to an abrupt end.

Last edited by Clog II The Avenger; 14th August 2006 at 11:26.

A Documentation of Ukrainians who rescued Jews during the Holocaust
3 May 2010 
Approached by Leonid Finberg of the Center for Studies of the History and Culture of East  European Jews, National University of “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy”, the UCRDC has agreed to collaborate on a project on Ukrainian-Jewish relations. Titled “I am my brother’s keeper”, the project involves both a research element and a public awareness campaign.

The UCRDC will focus on identifying and documenting cases that have a Canadian connection, and will undertake research in Canada to review what is already known, and covered by the media; locate and organize materials from the UCRDC archives and oral history collection; and conduct interviews in Canada regarding Ukrainians who hid or saved Jews during World War II.

The project has the support of the Ukrainian Jewish Encounter Initiative (UJEI), a privately organized, multinational initiative whose goal is to deepen scholarly and broader public understanding of the breadth, complexity, and diversity of Ukrainian-Jewish relations, with a view to the future. Canadians, including notably Jim Temerty, are playing an important role in the development and leadership of this initiative.

Once a number of significant cases have been documented, UJEI, UCRDC, and the Center for Studies of the History and Culture of East  European Jews in Kyiv will collaboratively organize events to raise awareness about these exceptional people and those saved by them.

The UCRDC would welcome any information that might be helpful in accomplishing this task – in particular, suggestions regarding people who should be interviewed in connection with their own experience or that of a family member.

Orest Zakydalsky, Researcher
Ukrainian Canadian Research and Documentation Centre
620 Spadina Ave.
Toronto, ON
M5S 2H4
Tel – 416-966-1819 (office)1/27/2012
Email –
Submitted by Alan Newark

From: alan newark
Date: Sun, 4 Nov 2012
Subject: Jewish-Ukrainian letters from
Memories of Holocaust survivor Raja Nusinowna Archowa about her stay in the ghetto area in Tultschinsk Vinnitsa, Ukraine. I, Raja Nusinowna Archowa, was born in 1931. My family: My father Nusin Moschkowitsch Scherb (b. 1900), my mother Ester Iojlowna (b. 1903) and brother Grigory Nusinowitsch Scherb (b. 1935).

On 22 June 1941 and the war on 22 July 1941 Tulchin was occupied by the Germans in Vinnitsa region. I was only ten years old. With horror I think back to those years.

First, the Germans came to our town. A few months later, they handed the management of the city to the Romanians, who were stooges of the German fascists. Right at the beginning of the occupation, the Jews were expelled from their homes, we lived in the suburbs, had to immediately wear the yellow star and we were forced to physical dirty work. They treated us like the last animals.

Several times, we paid Romanians the money -- thought we could save ourselves. but we were wrong. With each passing day, they treated us worse. In October 1941, all Jews were herded into the square. Most of them have been associated with a transport to the Pechersky District Tulchin. Tulchin remained with only 25 skilled workers who would work for the Romanians.

After the ghetto had been reduced so dramatically in Tulchin, we came to "Quarantine". The building in which we should live was half destroyed with smashed windows. We slept on the cement floor, warming each other. It was very tight in the small rooms, in each room 20-30 people, lived like sardines in a can. We had neither clothes nor food and were starving literally. We had lice, were sick, had fever and cough and which put us at each other.

That we have survived, we have to thank our Ukrainian friends alone who appreciated my father very much because he was a good tailor. They threw us boiled potatoes and bread over the fence.
Again and again we had to take to the parade to be checked, should not be whether someone was hiding from us, and we were so scared that our teeth were chattering loudly. If someone is moving in the series, they beat him before the eyes of the children. A month after the "quarantine" they drove us to the middle of the night Volodarsky Street. It was very dark and there were a burning campfire. Each family was looking for a shelter in this absolute darkness. The ghetto was guarded day and night by Polizai. There were repeated raids; they were looking for someone or something. We had no childhood.

With each passing day, the harassment and humiliation grew worse, ultimately they led us through even experiments with new drugs. It was said that we should get back to a certain point where we should get a shot, allegedly to prevent epidemics. We went all like willing children. After that we got rash all over the body and fever up to 40 degrees, which we tried to relieve with a cold compress. Something else to treat it, we did not have. Also, they drove us into the wash house where our clothes supposedly were disinfected. After that procedure, we all got lice and scabies.

These are examples that show how we were harassed and humiliated. The occupation lasted for about two years and seven months.

On 03/15/1944 Tulchin was liberated by Soviet troops in the Vinnitsa region. So that our suffering was over.

Raja Nusiniwna Archowa.

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