Romania, Russia, Yugoslavia
Genealogy in Romania:
The County Archives assist those interested in genealogy searches by providing a wide range of services, from making photocopies of desired records to conducting research on a specific topic.
Services provided by archives are subject to a small fee, currently about $0.14 for a photocopy and about $18.00 and up for specific research. Local travel agencies usually have good contacts in the community and can assist those interested in genealogy searches with translation services, arranging appointments with the staff at the archives and with any other formalities.
For addresses and telephone numbers of national or county archives in Romania please contact the nearest Romanian Tourist Information Office.
Red Army records
Some 11,650 archival lists, indexed from about 1 million pages of doucmentation, were recently uploaded to Yad Vashem's website: www.yadvashem.org The Shoah Related Lists Database includes records compiled by Red Army investigators that were later stored in archives in the former Soviet Union.
Russian DP camps stamps
Russian dp camp stamps
Russia is now rewriting World War II history: ACTION UKRAINE
HISTORY REPORT (AUHR) #4
Washington, D.C., Thursday, June 11, 2009
"Moscow also disguises the fact that Stalin murdered more Russians and other Soviet citizens than Nazi Germany. Its official figure of 27 million war dead includes several millions of Stalin's victims during Soviet civilian deportations and military purges [i.e. Ukraine, Poland, Estonia, Georgia, the Baltics, and others].
Instead of admitting that it was a perpetrator and an opportunist in the destruction of Europe, Russia, as the successor state to the Soviet Union, depicts itself as a victim and a victor." For complete article see: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124467052380903681.html
Between Hitler & Stalin - the untold story
Death Squads seek DPs who didn't return to Russia: Movie testimony: http://m.youtube.com/watch?feature=youtu.be&v=kk6WiVpCw2I&desktop_uri=%2Fwatch%3Fv%3Dkk6WiVpCw2I%26feature%3Dyoutu.be
Searchable USSR (a/k/a Soviet Union) World War II Military Deaths
In the latter stages of WWII, it was realized that an estimated 21 million people would need assistance returning to their homelands and finding their splintered families. These displaced persons, or DPs as they were called, became the aftermath of the Nazi World War II expansion. Millions of people in Europe fled or were removed from their homes and/or country. These people were survivors of the Nazi concentration camps, forced labor battalions and death marches.
The UNRRA's effors to take care of these people and to arrange repatriation for them was recorded by Rude. The irony is that the DP camps were former concerntration camps, such as Belsen and Auschwitz or the infamous Wermacht barracks in Widlflecken.
Rude recalls in her book "Remembrances" that, "Displaced Persons were merely survivors -- stateless and homeless; their families had been slaughtered in experimentation camps, lost in concentration camps, or, if lucky, were survivors and were now in other displaced persons camps. All their possessions had been confiscated or destroyed."
"At the end of the war, they were rounded up and temprorarily put into campsÉ Inside the camps, there was domestic activity of all kinds. The people's cultures often came out in what they made and what they did." The camps were over-crowded and living conditions were poor, although for the first time in many years there was enough food to eat.
Rude's photo collection allows the viewer "to dwell on a photographer's vision of the general difficulties of the post-war period, the issue of the search for justice against perpetrators of genocide and the return of life by the victims of the Nazis." Rude said she didn't take her negatives with her when she left Europe. But in 1997 she found out they were in the Holocaust Museum. See http://www.chgs.umn.edu/Visual___Artistic_Resources/Maxine_Rude/maxine_rude.html
Russian or Ukraine? - Ukraine: Where Nation-Building and Empire Meet
Posted on August 22, 2014 http://reconsideringrussia.org/tag/donbas-2/
This is a very good short history and analysis of why some people consider Ukraine to be a subclass of the Russians, much to the anger of the Ukrainian nationists.
August Sherman's photographed this Ruthenian girl, immigrant from Ukraine, at Ellis Island.
Coiled in a embroiled babushka, she stares out with pale eyes, her neck encircled by loops
of irridescent beads above a heavily embroilered blouse and shearling vest.
Galizien (This is German / English transliteration of Galician) - same territory as Rusyn
If somebody is interested in Gaklizien (GALIZIEN) German Descendants, especially from Ugartsthal, please see the website at:
Best regards, Andrzej Philips, Poland
The Philipps from Ugartsthal:
Subject: Displaced person in Scotland
Please can you help me. I am trying to trace my grandfather who was from Hungary (Budapest). He came over to a POW camp in Stuartfield in the north east of Scotland around about 1945 -1946 but it is possible he was over before that. Could you tell me if there would be any lists of the personnel who were at the camp. I would be greatful if you could help me or give me some leads i could try and follow. With Regards, Donna Ritchie.
Ukrainian POWs, Hallmuir, Scotland, 1947
"From the outside, this doesn't look like a place of worship. The small, corrugated iron hut is pretty anonymous but the crucifix on the door marks it as special. Inside the drab exterior there is an ornate world of wonder. Simple wooden pews face a beautifully decorated altar. There are religious statues on both sides and numerous brightly-coloured ornaments. If you look closely you can see that they’re hand-made, the best example being the Blue Peter-style chandelier made from tinsel and coathangers, still going strong after 60 years service.
"This chapel was built by Ukrainian prisoners of war who were sent here in 1947. Between 420 and 450 men were imprisoned in Rimini and sent to Scotland instead of being sent home where they would have been tried as traitors and faced almost certain death. They arrived in Glasgow wearing German uniforms, and came to Happendon Lodge near Motherwell, then Carstairs before landing up in the camp at Hallmuir, 3 miles outside Lockerbie in the Scottish Borders.
"90% of the men were farmers so the Ministry of Agriculture gave them jobs on the local land. One man, Mr Fallat, bought some fruit seeds from Italy and planted an orchard that still stands to this day. Inside the church they were just as creative. The landowner, Sir John Buchanan Jardine gave them this small hut and after humble beginnings they began to decorate it as a home from home. On the high altar is a model of their local Ukranian cathedral, carved with a pen knife. It was made from memory as the Russians destroyed the real one. The candlesticks beside it are made from shell casings and the standards surrounding the arch from a tent brought over from Rimini. For a place decorated in a time of austerity it's wonderfully cheerful."
Submitted by Alan Newark email@example.com
Serbia remained under German military administration from 1941 until 1944.
Passenger Ships Archive: http://www.gjenvick.com/SteamshipLines/HamburgAmericanLine/index.html#axzz4jQgcHStD
Slovakia, an independent republic, formerly united with the Czech Republic
Slovenia a republic in north west Yugoslavia, formerly in Austria
"The Domovina recently printed some articles about Korotan's trip this past summer to Slovenia to commemorate the 60th anniversary of refugees like my father. Anton received comfort in knowing that all the hardships he endured from refusing to sacrifice his ideals had not been in vain. "Our first 10 years in America were especially hard for Anton. He arrived full of energy and hope for a better life for himself and his family. Instead, he often found prejudice and exploitation. He worried about his brothers and sisters in Slovenia, many of whom were in prison. And he worried about his sick mother, who died in 1954 with everyone in the family at her bedside except for Anton. He wrote in his diary about his depression, not sure that he could continue living like that. But he had his faith in God, he had Mama, who provided him with unconditional love and support, he had many friends who helped him, and he had a tremendous sense of responsibility for his children. And despite the occasional prejudice, America did provide him with work and freedom and the ability to provide for his family and even prosper."
Diary of Anton Zakelj, translated and edited by John Zakelj http://zakeljdiary.s5.com/
Thyphoid spread among DPs
They were certain in large numbers to be Russians [error, Ukrainians weren't allowed to have their own identity] and Poles [also Ukrainians] with some Yugoslavs and Greeks, and inside Germany would be French, Belgians, and Dutch. They were the result of the vast transfer of population that Germany had begun in early 1942 to provide labor for its war industry, farms, and military construction. An Allied agency had estimated that as of October 1943 there were 21 million displaced persons in Europe, mainly in Germany or in territory annexed by the Reich.
The DPs, moreover, could not be ignored even briefly or in the heat of battle, for they might harbor among them a danger to human life, both military and civilian, that was potentially greater than the war itself-the virus-like micro-organism Rickettsia. A benign parasite of the body louse, Rickettsia, when it passes from the feces of a louse into a human body through a bite or opening in the skin, causes typhus, the most feared epidemic disease in Europe since the bubonic plague.
During and after World War I, an estimated three million persons died from the disease in the Balkans and Ukraine. In World War II, a thousand cases had been registered in Naples by early 1944. Always serious and frequently fatal, typhus is endemic in parts of eastern Europe. When war breaks out it begins to spread; humans carrying the louse, host of the disease, provide its transportation. The Germans encountered it in their eastern campaigns, and it was known to have come into Germany with forced laborers and transports to concentration camps.
The U.S. government had established the US Typhus Commission in December 1942 to study the disease and devise methods of control. By early 1944, DDT had been proven highly effective against the louse, hence indirectly also against the disease; however, it had to be applied individually and more than once, since it killed the insect but did not affect the eggs. In a reasonably static population, DDT could in a short time practically wipe out the disease; in a mass eruption and uncontrolled migration of people, carriers might still spread it from one end of Europe to the other in a few weeks.
President Truman's directive on Displaced Persons, December 22, 1945
PRESIDENT TRUMAN'S STATEMENT AND DIRECTIVE ON DISPLACED PERSONS
December 22, 1945
New York Times.
The war has brought in its wake an appalling dislocation of populations in Europe. Many humanitarian organizations, including the United Nations Relief and the Rehabilitation Administration, are doing their utmost to solve the multitude of problems arising in connection with this dislocation of hundreds of thousands of persons. Every effort is being made to return the displaced persons and refugees in the various countries of Europe to their former homes. The great difficulty is that so many of these persons have no homes to which they may return. The immensity of the problem of displaced persons and refugees is almost beyond comprehension.
A number of countries in Europe, including Switzerland, Sweden, France and England, are working toward its solution. The United States shares the responsibility to relieve the suffering. To the extent that our present immigration laws permit, everything possible should be done at once to facilitate the entrance of some of these displaced persons and refugees into the United States.
In this way we may do something to relieve human misery and set an example to the other countries of the world which are able to receive some of these war sufferers. I feel that it is essential that we do this ourselves to show our good faith in requesting other nations to open their doors for this purpose.
Most of these persons are natives of central and eastern Europe and the Balkans. The immigration quotas for all these countries for one year total approximately 39,000, two-thirds of which are allotted to Germany. Under the law, in any single month the number of visas issued cannot exceed 10 per cent of the annual quota. This means that from now on only about 3,900 visas can be issued each month to persons who are natives of these countries.
Very few persons from Europe have migrated to the United States during the war years. In the fiscal year 1942, only 10 per cent of the immigration quotas was used; in 1943, 5 per cent; in 1944, 6 per cent; and in 1945, 7 per cent. As of Nov. 30, 1945, the end of the fifth month of the present fiscal year, only about 10 per cent of the quotas for the European countries has been used. These unused quotas, however, do not accumulate through the years, and I do not intend to ask the Congress to change this rule.
The factors chiefly responsible for these low immigration figures were restraints imposed by the enemy, transportation difficulties and the absence of consular facilities. Most of those Europeans who have been admitted to the United States during the last five years were persons who left Europe prior to the war, and thereafter entered here from non-European countries.
I consider that common decency and the fundamental comradeship of all human beings require us to do what lies within our power to see that our established immigration quotas are used in order to reduce human suffering. I am taking the necessary steps to see that this is done as quickly as possible.
Of the displaced persons and refugees whose entrance into the United States we will permit under this plan, it is hoped that the majority will be orphaned children. The provisions of law prohibiting the entry of persons likely to become public charges will be strictly observed. Responsible welfare organizations now at work in this field will guarantee that these children will not become public charges.
Similar guarantees have to be or will be made on behalf of adult persons. The record of these welfare organizations throughout the past years has been excellent, and I am informed that no persons admitted under their sponsorship have ever become charges on their communities. Moreover, many of the immigrants will have close family ties in the United States and will receive the assistance of their relatives until they are in a position to provide for themselves.
These relatives or organizations will also advance the necessary visa fees and travel fare. Where the necessary funds for travel fare and visa fees have not been advanced by a welfare organization or relative, the individual applicant must meet these costs. In this way the transportation of these immigrants across the Atlantic will not cost the American taxpayers a single dollar.
In order to enter the United States it is necessary to obtain a visa from a consular officer of the Department of State. As everyone knows, a great many of our consular establishments all over the world were disrupted and their operations suspended when the war came. It is physically impossible to reopen and to restaff all of them overnight. Consequently it is necessary to choose the area in which to concentrate our immediate efforts. This is a painful necessity because it requires us to make an almost impossible choice among degrees of misery. But if we refrain from making a choice because it will necessarily be arbitrary, no choice will ever be made and we shall end by helping no one.
The decision has been made, therefore, to concentrate our immediate efforts in the American zones of occupation in Europe. This is not intended, however entirely to exclude issuance of visas in other parts of the world.
In our zones in Europe there are citizens of every major European country. Visas issued to displaced persons and refugees will be charged, according to law, to the countries of their origin. They will be distributed fairly among persons of all faiths, creeds and nationality.
It is intended. that, as soon as practicable, regular consular facilities will be reestablished in every part of the world, and the usual, orderly methods of registering and reviewing visa applications will be resumed. The pressing need, however, is to act now in a way that will produce immediate and tangible results. I hope that by early spring adequate consular facilities will be in operation in our zones in Europe, so that immigration can begin immediately upon the availability of ships.
I am informed that there are various measures now pending before the Congress which would either prohibit or severely reduce further immigration. I hope that such legislation will not be passed. This period of unspeakable human distress is not the time for us to close or to narrow our gates. I wish to emphasize, however, that any effort to bring relief to these displaced persons and refugees must and will be strictly within the limits of the present quotas as imposed by law.
There is one particular matter involving a relatively small number of aliens. President Roosevelt, in an endeavor to assist in handling displaced persons and refugees during the war and upon the recommendation of the War Refugee Board, directed that a group of about 1,000 displaced persons be removed from refugee camps in Italy and settled temporarily in a war relocation camp near Oswego, N. Y. Shortly thereafter, President Roosevelt informed the Congress that these persons would be returned to their homelands after the war.
Upon the basis of a careful survey by the Department of State and the Immigration and Naturalization Service, it has been determined that if these persons were now applying for admission to the United States most of them would be admissible under the immigration laws.
In the circumstances it would be inhumane and wasteful to require these people to go all the way back to Europe merely for the purpose of applying there for immigration visas and returning to the United States. Many of them have close relatives, including sons and daughters, who are citizens of the United States and who have served and are serving honorably in the armed forces of our country.
I am therefore directing the Secretary of State and the Attorney General to adjust the immigration status of the members of this camp who may wish to remain here, in strict accordance with existing laws and regulations
The number of persons at the Oswego camp is, however, comparatively small. Our major task is to facilitate the entry into the United States of displaced persons and refugees still in Europe. To meet this larger problem, I am directing the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of War, the War Shipping Administrator and the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service to proceed at once to take all appropriate steps to expedite the quota immigration of displaced persons and refugees from Europe to the United States. Representatives of these officials will depart for Europe very soon to prepare detailed plans for the prompt execution of this project
The attached directive has been issued by me to the responsible Government agencies to carry out this policy. I wish to emphasize, above all, that nothing in this directive will deprive a single American soldier or his wife or children of a berth on a vessel homeward bound, or delay their return.
This is the opportunity for America to set an example for the rest of the world in cooperation toward alleviating human misery.
December 22, 1945
Secretary of State, Secretary of War, Attorney General, War Shipping Administrator, Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, Director General of UNRRA.
The grave dislocation of populations in Europe resulting from the war has produced human suffering that the people of the United States cannot and will not ignore. This Government should take every possible measure to facilitate full immigration to the United States under existing quota laws.
The war has most seriously disrupted our normal facilities for handling immigration matters in many parts of the world. At the same time the demands upon those facilities have increased manifold.
It is, therefore, necessary that immigration under the quotas be resumed initially in the areas of greatest need. I, therefore, direct the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War, the Attorney General, the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, the War Shipping Administrator, and other appropriate officials to take the following action:
The Secretary of State is directed to establish with the utmost dispatch consular facilities at or near displaced person and refugee assembly center areas in the American zones of occupation. It shall be the responsibility of these consular officers, in conjunction with the immigrant inspectors, to determine as quickly as possible the eligibility of the applicants for visas and admission to the United States.
For this purpose the Secretary will, if necessary, divert the personnel and funds of his department from other functions in order to insure the most expeditious handling of this operation. In cooperation with the Attorney General he shall appoint as temporary vice consuls, authorized to issue visas, such officers of the Immigration and Naturalization Service as can be made available for this program
Within the limits of administrative discretion, the officers of the Department of State assigned to this program shall make every effort to simplify and to hasten the process of issuing visas. If necessary, blocs of visa numbers may be assigned to each of the emergency consular establishments. Each such bloc may be used to meet the applications filed at the consular establishment to which the bloc is assigned. It is not intended, however, entirely to exclude the issuance of visas in other parts of the world.
Visas should be distributed fairly among persons of all faiths, creeds and nationalities. I desire that special attention be devoted to orphaned children to whom it is hoped the majority of visas will be issued.
With respect to the requirement of law that visas may not be issued to applicants likely to become public charges after admission to the United States, the Secretary of State shall cooperate with the immigration and naturalization service in perfecting appropriate arrangements with welfare organizations in the United States which may be prepared to guarantee financial support to successful applicants. This may be accomplished by corporate affidavit or by any means deemed appropriate and practicable.
The Secretary of War, subject to limitation imposed by the Congress on War Department appropriations, will give such help as is practicable in:
(A) Furnishing information to appropriate consular officers and immigrant inspectors to facilitate in the selection of applicants for visas; and
(B) Assisting until other facilities suffice in:
(1) Transporting immigrants to a European port;
(2) Feeding, housing and providing medical care to such immigrants until embarked; and
(C) Making available office facilities, billets, messes and transportation for Department of State, Department of Justice and United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration personnel connected with this work, where practicable and requiring no out-of-pocket expenditure by the War Department and when other suitable facilities are not available.
The Attorney General, through the Immigration and Naturalization Service, will assign personnel on duty in the American zones of operation to make the immigration inspections, to assist consular officers of the Department of State in connection with the issuance of visas and to take the necessary steps to settle the cases of those Allies presently interned at Oswego through appropriate statutory and administrative processes.
The Administration of the War Shipping Administration will make the necessary arrangements for water transportation from the port of embarkation in Europe to the United States, subject to the provision that the movement of immigrants will in no way interfere with the scheduled return of service personnel and their spouses and children from the European Theatre.
The Surgeon General of the Public Health Service will assign to duty in the American zones of occupation the necessary personnel to conduct the mental and physical examinations of prospective immigrants prescribed in the immigration laws.
The Director General of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration will be requested to provide all possible aid to the United States authorities in preparing these people for transportation to the United States and to assist in their care, particularly in the cases of children in transit and others needing special attention.
In order to insure the effective execution of this program, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War, the Attorney General, War Shipping Administrator and the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service shall appoint representatives to serve as members of an interdepartmental committee under the chairmanship of the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization.
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